The majority of male patients with COVID-19 present low testosterone levels on admission to Intensive Care in Hamburg, Germany:

This is precisely why months ago I recommended ” dont come all the way off your AAS use” .. just lower it down to Physiological levels

A retrospective cohort study – yet to be peer reviewed

Findings.

All enrolled patients (n=45; n=35 males and n=10 females) presented comorbidities with hypertension being the most common (45.7{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in males; 40{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in females), followed by cancer (35{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in males; 40{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in females), obesity (34.3{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in males and 30{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in females), type II diabetes (25.7{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in males and 20{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in females) and chronic heart diseases (8.6{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in males and 0{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in females).

We detected that the vast majority of male COVID-19 patients present low testosterone (68.6{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8}) and low dihydrotestosterone (48.6{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8}) levels.

In contrast, most female COVID-19 patients have elevated testosterone levels (60{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8}) without alterations in dihydrotestosterone levels.

Both, female and male COVID-19 patients may present elevated estradiol levels (45.7{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in males and 40{4810c8228756a9189e64fcffe2b64504834fd1a9aa1761a0e9a85eac56097be8} in females).

Disease severity defined by SOFA score correlates with elevated cytokine responses (e.g. IL-6) in males and IL-2 in females.

In male COVID-19 patients, testosterone levels negatively correlate with inflammatory IL-2 and IFN-γ, whereas estradiol levels positively correlate with the inflammatory cytokine IL-6.

Vice versa, in female COVID-19 patients, testosterone levels positively correlate with inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-6).

Takeaway ( Interpretation )

Here we show that critically ill male COVID-19 patients suffer from severe testosterone and dihydrotestosterone deficiencies.

Both androgens are required to mount antiviral immune responses to combat infection in males.

Laymans Takeaway

Low T levels = compromised Immune Response
Low DHT levels = compromised Immune Response

But dont forget !

High Androgens also = compromised Immune Response

Inverted J Curve anyone ?

Bueller ?
Bueller ?
Anyone ?
Anyone ?

Also for you DHT haters.. note carefully

Low DHT levels = compromised Immune Response

The majority of male patients with COVID-19 present low testosterone levels on admission to Intensive Care in Hamburg, Germany a retrospective cohort study.

Victor Black

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