The majority of male patients with COVID-19 present low testosterone levels on admission to Intensive Care in Hamburg, Germany:
This is precisely why months ago I recommended ” dont come all the way off your AAS use” .. just lower it down to Physiological levels
A retrospective cohort study – yet to be peer reviewed
All enrolled patients (n=45; n=35 males and n=10 females) presented comorbidities with hypertension being the most common (45.7% in males; 40% in females), followed by cancer (35% in males; 40% in females), obesity (34.3% in males and 30% in females), type II diabetes (25.7% in males and 20% in females) and chronic heart diseases (8.6% in males and 0% in females).
We detected that the vast majority of male COVID-19 patients present low testosterone (68.6%) and low dihydrotestosterone (48.6%) levels.
In contrast, most female COVID-19 patients have elevated testosterone levels (60%) without alterations in dihydrotestosterone levels.
Both, female and male COVID-19 patients may present elevated estradiol levels (45.7% in males and 40% in females).
Disease severity defined by SOFA score correlates with elevated cytokine responses (e.g. IL-6) in males and IL-2 in females.
In male COVID-19 patients, testosterone levels negatively correlate with inflammatory IL-2 and IFN-γ, whereas estradiol levels positively correlate with the inflammatory cytokine IL-6.
Vice versa, in female COVID-19 patients, testosterone levels positively correlate with inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-6).
Takeaway ( Interpretation )
Here we show that critically ill male COVID-19 patients suffer from severe testosterone and dihydrotestosterone deficiencies.
Both androgens are required to mount antiviral immune responses to combat infection in males.
Low T levels = compromised Immune Response
Low DHT levels = compromised Immune Response
But dont forget !
High Androgens also = compromised Immune Response
Inverted J Curve anyone ?
Also for you DHT haters.. note carefully
Low DHT levels = compromised Immune ResponseThe majority of male patients with COVID-19 present low testosterone levels on admission to Intensive Care in Hamburg, Germany a retrospective cohort study.